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Showing alert messages

Paul Hudson    @twostraws   

If something important happens, a common way of notifying the user is using an alert – a pop up window that contains a title, message, and one or two buttons depending on what you need.

But think about it: when should an alert be shown and how? Views are a function of our program state, and alerts aren’t an exception to that. So, rather than saying “show the alert”, we instead create our alert and set the conditions under which it should be shown.

A basic SwiftUI alert has a title, message, and one dismiss button, like this:

Alert(title: Text("Hello SwiftUI!"), message: Text("This is some detail message"), dismissButton: .default(Text("OK")))

You can add more code to configure the buttons in more detail if you want, but that’s enough for now. More interesting is how we present that alert: we don’t assign the alert to a variable then write something like, because that would be back the old “series of events” way of thinking.

Instead, we create some state that tracks whether our alert is showing, like this:

@State private var showingAlert = false

We then attach our alert somewhere to our user interface, telling it to use that state to determine whether the alert is presented or not. SwiftUI will watch showingAlert, and as soon as it becomes true it will show the alert.

Putting that all together, here’s some example code that shows an alert when a button is tapped:

struct ContentView: View {
    @State private var showingAlert = false

    var body: some View {
        Button("Show Alert") {
            self.showingAlert = true
        .alert(isPresented: $showingAlert) {
            Alert(title: Text("Hello SwiftUI!"), message: Text("This is some detail message"), dismissButton: .default(Text("OK")))

That attaches the alert to the button, but honestly it doesn’t matter where the alert() modifier is used – all we’re doing is saying that an alert exists and is shown when showingAlert is true.

Take a close look at the alert() modifier:

.alert(isPresented: $showingAlert)

That’s another two-way data binding, and it’s here because SwiftUI will automatically set showingAlert back to false when the alert is dismissed.

This is the final part of the overview for this project, so it’s almost time to get started with the real code. If you want to save the examples you’ve programmed you should copy your project directory somewhere else.

When you’re ready, put ContentView.swift back to the way it started when you first made the project, so we have a clean slate to work from.

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