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Discarding task groups

Available from Swift 5.9

Paul Hudson      @twostraws

SE-0381 adds new discardable task groups that fix an important gap in the current API: tasks that are created inside a task group are automatically discarded and destroyed as soon as they finish, which means task groups that run for extended periods of time (or perhaps forever, as in the case of a web server) won’t leak memory over time.

When using the original withTaskGroup() API, a problem can occurs because of the way Swift only discards a child task and its resulting data when we call next() or loop over the task group’s children. Calling next() will cause your code to suspend if all child tasks are currently executing, so we hit the problem: you want a server that’s always listening for connections so you can add tasks to process them, but you also need to stop every so often to clean up old tasks that have completed.

There was no clean solution to this until Swift 5.9, which adds withDiscardingTaskGroup() and withThrowingDiscardingTaskGroup() functions that create new discarding task groups. These are task groups that automatically discard and destroy each task as soon as it completes, without us needing to call next() to consume it manually.

To give you an idea of what triggers the problem, we could implement a naive directory watcher that loops forever and reports back the names of any files or directories that have been added or removed:

struct FileWatcher {
    // The URL we're watching for file changes.
    let url: URL

    // The set of URLs we've already returned.
    private var handled = Set<URL>()

    init(url: URL) {
        self.url = url

    mutating func next() async throws -> URL? {
        while true {
            // Read the latest contents of our directory, or exit if a problem occurred.
            guard let contents = try? FileManager.default.contentsOfDirectory(at: url, includingPropertiesForKeys: nil) else {
                return nil

            // Figure out which URLs we haven't already handled.
            let unhandled = handled.symmetricDifference(contents)

            if let newURL = unhandled.first {
                // If we already handled this URL then it must be deleted.
                if handled.contains(newURL) {
                } else {
                    // Otherwise this URL is new, so mark it as handled.
                    return newURL
            } else {
                // No file difference; sleep for a few seconds then try again.
                try await Task.sleep(for: .microseconds(1000))

We could then use that from inside a simple app, although for brevity we’ll just print the URLs rather than do any actual complicated processing:

struct FileProcessor {
    static func main() async throws {
        var watcher = FileWatcher(url: URL(filePath: "/Users/twostraws"))

        try await withThrowingTaskGroup(of: Void.self) { group in
            while let newURL = try await {
                group.addTask {

    static func process(_ url: URL) {
        print("Processing \(url.path())")

That will run forever, or at least until either the user terminates the program or the directory we’re watching stops being accessible. However, because it uses withThrowingTaskGroup() it has a problem: a new child task is created every time addTask() is called, but because it doesn’t call anywhere those child tasks are never destroyed. Little by little – maybe only a few hundred bytes each time – this code will eat more and more memory until eventually the operating system runs out of RAM and is forced to terminate the program.

This problem goes away entirely with discarding task groups: just replacing withThrowingTaskGroup(of: Void.self) with withThrowingDiscardingTaskGroup means each child task is automatically destroyed as soon as its work finishes.

In practice, this problem is mainly going to be faced by server code, where the server must be able to accept new connections while handling existing ones smoothly.

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