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Atributos y métodos estáticos

Swift te permite crear atributos y métodos que pertenecen a un tipo, en lugar de a las instancias de ese tipo. Esto es muy útil para organizar los datos de manera significativa al almacenar datos compartidos.

Swift llama a estos atributos compartidos "atributos estáticos", y se pueden crear usando solamente el modificador static. Una vez que lo has hecho, puedes acceder al atributo utilizando el nombre completo del tipo. Por ejemplo:

struct TaylorFan {
    static var cancionFavorita = "Look What You Made Me Do"

    var nombre: String
    var edad: Int
}

let fan = TaylorFan(nombre: "James", edad: 25)
print(TaylorFan.cancionFavorita)

Luego, un fan de Taylor Swift tiene un nombre y edad que pertenecen únicamente a él, pero todos los fans tienen la misma canción favorita.

Debido a que los métodos estáticos pertenecen a la propia estructura, en lugar de a la instancia, no puedes usarlos para acceder a atributos no estáticos de la estructura.

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